Internet of Things – What is the Internet of Things?

Internet of Things – What is the Internet of Things?

Internet of Things
Internet of Things

The internet of things, or IoT, is a network of connected computing devices, mechanical and digital machinery, items, animals, or people that may exchange data across a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

The term “thing” refers to any natural or artificial object that can be given an Internet Protocol (IP) address and has the ability to transfer data over a network, including people with implanted heart monitors, farm animals with biochip transponders, cars with built-in tire pressure monitors, and other examples.

Organizations across a range of industries are increasingly utilizing IoT to run more smoothly, better understand their consumers provide better customer service, boost decision-making, and raise the value of the company.

What is the IoT’s history?

In a presentation he gave to Procter &Gamble (P&G) in 1999, Kevin Ashton, co-founder of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), first brought up the internet of things.

In order to embrace the hip new trend of 1999: the internet, Ashton named his presentation “Internet of Things” in order to bring radio frequency ID (RFID) to P&G’s senior management.

Despite without using the precise term, it offered a clear picture of where IoT was going.

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), wireless technologies, microservices, and the internet have all come together to form the Internet of Things (IoT).

The breakdown of operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) silos due to convergence has made it possible to examine unstructured machine-generated data in order to find insights that will lead to improvements.

Embedded internet and pervasive computing were terms used to describe connected devices in the 1970s; nevertheless, Ashton was the first to use the term “internet of things.”

For instance, a Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University in the early 1980s was the first internet appliance.

Programmers could use the internet to verify the machine’s condition and see if a cold beverage was ready for them when they decided to visit it.

IoT developed from M2M communication, or machine-to-machine (M2M) connections made over a network with no human involvement.

M2M is the term for managing and gathering data from connected devices in the cloud.

Internet of Things
Internet of Things

IoT is a sensor network made up of billions of smart gadgets that connects people, systems, and other applications to collect and share data, taking M2M to a new level. M2M provides the connectivity that powers IoT as its core.

The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software application program category, which collects data in real-time from remote locations to control equipment and conditions, is a natural extension of the internet of things.

SCADA systems are made up of both hardware and software elements.

The software on the computer uses the data that the hardware collects and feeds into it to process and present it in real-time.

Because of the way SCADA has progressed, first-generation IoT systems have evolved from late-generation SCADA systems.

But, it wasn’t until the middle of 2010 when, among other things, the Chinese government declared that IoT would be a strategic priority in its five-year plan that the idea of the IoT ecosystem truly started to take off.

How does IoT function?

The Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is made up of web-enabled smart devices that use embedded systems, such as processors, sensors, and communication gear, to gather, send, and act on the data they get from their surroundings.

By connecting to an IoT gateway or other edge device, which either sends data to the cloud for analysis or analyzes it locally, IoT devices exchange the sensor data they collect.

Sometimes, these gadgets communicate with other connected devices and act on the information they acquire from one another.

Although individuals can engage with the devices to set them up, give them instructions, or retrieve the data, the gadgets accomplish the majority of the job without their help.

These web-enabled devices’ connectivity, networking, and communication protocols are heavily influenced by the particular IoT applications that have been implemented.

IoT can also employ machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) to help make data collection processes simpler and more dynamic.

Why is IoT Important?

Those who use the internet of things can live and work more intelligently and have total control over their life. IoT is crucial to business in addition to providing smart home automation devices.

With the help of IoT, organizations can see in real-time how their systems actually function, gaining insights into anything from equipment performance to supply chain and logistics activities.

Businesses may automate procedures and save money on labor thanks to IoT.

Additionally, it reduces waste, enhances service delivery, lowers the cost of manufacturing and delivering items, and provides transparency in customer transactions.

As a result, IoT is among the most significant technologies of modern life, and it will gain momentum as more companies recognize how linked gadgets can help them stay competitive.

What technological advancements have enabled IoT?

Although the concept of IoT has been around for a while, it has only just become a reality thanks to a variety of recent technological advancements.

  • Availability of inexpensive, low-power sensor technology. More manufacturers may now use IoT technology thanks to reasonably priced and trustworthy sensors.
  • It is now simple to link sensors to the cloud and other “things” for effective data transfer thanks to a variety of network protocols for the internet.
  • Platforms for cloud computing. Businesses and consumers may now get the infrastructure they need to scale up without having to manage it all thanks to the expansion of cloud platforms.
  • Analytics using machine learning. Businesses may acquire insights more quickly and easily thanks to improvements in machine learning and analytics, as well as access to diverse and enormous volumes of data stored in the cloud.

The development of these complementary technologies pushes the limits of IoT, and the data generated by IoT feeds these complementary technologies.

This has made IoT devices more appealing, practical, and inexpensive for usage at home.

What advantages does IoT offer businesses?

Organizations can gain a number of advantages from the internet of things.

Certain advantages are unique to certain businesses, while others apply to many other industries.

The following are some typical advantages of IoT for businesses:

IoT equips organizations with the resources they need to enhance their business strategies and challenges them to reevaluate how they conduct their operations.

However, it has also found use cases for organizations within the agriculture, infrastructure, and home automation industries, leading some organizations toward digital transformation.

In general, IoT is most prevalent in manufacturing, transportation, and utility organizations, using sensors and other IoT devices.

The use of IoT in agriculture can help farmers by simplifying their work. Sensors can gather information on soil composition, temperature, humidity, rainfall, and other variables that would aid in automating farming practices.

IoT can also assist with the capacity to monitor infrastructure-related operations.

For instance, sensors could be used to track developments or changes in the structural elements of buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure.

Benefits associated with this include cost savings, time savings, changes to the workflow’s quality of life, and a paperless workflow.

IoT can be used by a home automation company to control and monitor a building’s electrical and mechanical systems.

On a larger scale, smart cities can assist residents in using less garbage and energy.

Every industry, including those in healthcare, banking, retail, and manufacturing, is impacted by IoT.

What are IoT’s benefits and drawbacks?

IoT has several benefits, some of which are listed below:

  • Availability of information on any device, at any time, from anywhere;
  • Enhanced connectivity between electronic devices connected;
  • Saving time and money by sending data packets across a network connection;
  • Automating tasks to lessen the need for human intervention and increase the caliber of a company’s offerings.

IoT has a number of drawbacks, including the following:

The likelihood that a hacker may obtain private information rises as the number of connected devices rises and information is transmitted more widely between devices.

Companies may someday have to deal with enormous numbers of IoT devices, perhaps even millions, and controlling and collecting data from all those devices will be difficult.

Every linked device will most likely become corrupted if the system has a problem.

Since there is no global IoT interoperability standard, it is challenging for devices from various manufacturers to connect with one another.

IoT frameworks and standards

There are a number of new IoT standards, including the ones listed below:

Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network using IPv6

An open standard called Networks (6LoWPAN) was established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

Any low-power radio can communicate with the internet thanks to the 6LoWPAN standard, including 804.15.4, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Z-Wave (for home automation).

ZigBee is a wireless network with a low data rate and minimal power that is mostly utilized in industrial environments.

The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.15.4 standard is the foundation of ZigBee.

Dotdot, the universal IoT language developed by the ZigBee Alliance, enables smart items to communicate and cooperate safely across any network.

An operating system (OS) for wireless sensor networks that resemble Unix is called LiteOS.

Smart homes, wearables, apps for intelligent manufacturing, smartphones, and the Internet of Vehicles are all supported by LiteOS (IoV). The OS also functions as a platform for creating smart devices.

OneM2M is a machine-to-machine service layer that can connect devices by being incorporated into hardware and software.

OneM2M, a global standardization organization, was established to generate reusable standards that would allow IoT applications from various industry verticals to communicate.

The Object Management Group (OMG) created the Data Distribution Service (DDS), an IoT standard for high-performance, real-time M2M connectivity.

Asynchronous messaging via wire is supported by the open source Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP).

AMQP allows for interoperable and encrypted transmission between businesses and apps. The protocol is utilized in IoT device management and client-server messaging.

The IETF created the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), which describes how low-power, compute-constrained devices can function in the internet of things.

A WAN protocol called Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) was created to support massive networks, such as smart cities with millions of low-power devices.

There are several IoT frameworks, including:

A cloud computing platform for IoT called Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT was introduced by Amazon.

With the help of this framework, smart devices will be able to securely connect to and communicate with other connected devices as well as the AWS cloud.

The Arm Mbed IoT platform allows for the creation of IoT applications using Arm microcontrollers.

By incorporating Mbed tools and services, the Arm Mbed IoT platform aims to give IoT devices a scalable, connected, and secure environment.

The Azure IoT Suite from Microsoft is a platform made up of a number of services that let users interact with and receive data from their IoT devices as well as perform different operations on that data, like multidimensional analysis, transformation, aggregation, and visualize those operations in a way that’s appropriate for business.

A platform for the quick implementation of IoT applications is Google’s Brillo/Weave.

Brillo, an Android-based operating system for the creation of embedded low-power devices, and Weave, an IoT-focused communication protocol that acts as the device and cloud’s common language, make up the platform’s two key pillars.

Calvin is an open-source Internet of Things (IoT) platform created by Ericsson for creating and managing distributed applications that let devices communicate with one another.

Calvin comes with a runtime environment for managing applications that are already running as well as a development framework for programmers creating new applications.

IoT applications for consumers and businesses

The internet of things has many practical uses, from consumer and business IoT to manufacturing and industrial IoT (IIoT).

Several industries, including the automotive, communication, and energy sectors, use IoT applications.

In the consumer market, for instance, smart houses with networked heating, lighting, and electronic equipment as well as smart appliances can be operated remotely using computers and smartphones.

In order to make users’ life easier and more comfortable, wearable technologies with sensors and software may gather and analyze user data. They can also send messages to other technologies concerning the users.

In order to improve first responders’ reaction times during emergencies, wearable gadgets are also employed in public safety.

For instance, they can provide efficient routes to a location or monitor the vital signs of firemen or construction workers at potentially fatal work sites.

IoT in healthcare has several advantages, one of which is the capacity to track patients more closely by analyzing the data produced.

IoT devices are frequently used in hospitals to carry out activities like managing the inventory of drugs and medical equipment.

Using sensors that determine the number of inhabitants in a room, smart buildings can, for example, lower energy expenditures.

Automatic temperature adjustments can be made, such as turning on the air conditioner if sensors detect that a conference room is full or reducing the heat if everyone has left the workplace.

IoT-based smart farming systems in agriculture can support the monitoring of crop fields’ light, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture via connected sensors. Irrigation system automation benefits from IoT as well.

IoT sensors and deployments, such as smart meters and lighting, can reduce traffic, save energy, monitor and handle environmental issues, and enhance the sanitation in a smart city.

IoT privacy and security issues

The internet of things uses billions of data points to connect billions of devices to the internet, all of which must be protected.

IoT security and IoT privacy are identified as important problems due to their larger attack surface.

One of the most well-known recent IoT attacks in 2016 was Mirai, a botnet that hacked the domain name server provider Dyn and temporarily brought down a large number of websites in one of the largest distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks ever recorded.

Attackers used inadequately secured IoT devices to gain access to the network.

Because IoT devices are interconnected, a hacker only needs to take advantage of one weakness to change all the data and make it useless.

Devices made by manufacturers who don’t update them frequently or at all leave them open to hackers.

Additionally, users of linked devices are frequently prompted to provide personal data such as names, ages, addresses, phone numbers, and even social network accounts. This data is useful to hackers.

The internet of things is also threatened by privacy issues, which are a top priority for IoT users. For instance, manufacturers and distributors of consumer IoT devices might utilize those gadgets to collect and market the personal information of customers.

IoT poses a risk to crucial infrastructure, such as transportation, financial services, and power, in addition to leaking personal data.


What is meant by the internet of things?

IoT, or the Internet of Things, refers to the overall network of interconnected devices as well as the technology that enables the communication between them as well as with the cloud.

What is the Internet of things with example?

A device that can measure environmental parameters, produce associated data, and transmit it through a communications network can be added to an otherwise inert object using the internet of things technology.

Examples of such inert objects include vehicles, plant electronic systems, roofs, lighting, etc.

What are the 4 types of IoT?

  • Introduction to the Internet of Things.
  • Connection for IoT via mobile/cellular.
  • IoT connectivity using Wi-Fi.
  • IoT connectivity for OEM: bootstrap.
  • IoT Connectivity Administration.
  • IoT use cases.

What is IoT and how it works?

The internet of things, or IoT, is a network of connected computing devices, mechanical and digital machinery, items, animals, or people that may exchange data across a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

How many IoT devices are there?

By 2023, there will be 14.4 billion IoT devices, up 18% from 2018, and by 2025, there may be 27 billion connected IoT devices.

IoT devices are predicted to number 25.4 billion by 2030. There are currently around 400 IoT platforms in use.